With the understanding of sovereignty as the general will of the people connected and approval of Rousseau that sovereignty is inalienable and indivisible. How to dispose of the sovereignty of People in favor of any persons or bodies, and its division between different parts of the nation, the logic of the doctrine of Rousseau, would be to deny sovereignty as the general will of the people. The people as sovereign, as the bearer and spokesman of the common will, for Rousseau, "can be represent only himself."Transferred, - he says - can power, but not the will ".
The Legislature itself as a sovereign, government can and should, according to Rousseau, exercised only by the people of a sovereign directly.As regards the executive power, it, "by contrast, may belong to the whole mass of people as a lawgiver or sovereign, as This power is expressed only in acts of a private nature that did not belong to the realm of law, nor, consequently, the competence of the sovereign, all acts which alone could be that the laws ".
The executive branch (government) is not created on the basis of public contract, and to address the sovereign as a mediating body for relations between subjects and sovereign. Explaining the ratio of the legislative and executive branches of government, Rousseau notes that every free action is Two reasons, which together make it: one of nih__ moral, the other physical. The first is the will, which determines the act, the second - force to execute it.'In the body politic - the same propellers; it also distinguish between force and the will: the latter under the name of the legislative power, first under the name of the executive branch. " The executive branch is authorized to sovereign to enforce the laws and maintain political and civil liberties. Unit executive government as a whole must be such that "it has always been ready to sacrifice Government for the people, not the people for the Government. "
Depending on who handed over the executive power (all, some, one), Rousseau distinguishes between forms of government, like democracy, aristocracy, monarchy. These differences in the teachings of Rousseau played a subordinate role, since it is assumed that all forms of government sovereignty and the legislative power belongs to all people. In general terms, Rousseau notes that "democratic governance best suited for small states aristocratic-to medium-sized, and monarchical - for large.
At the same time every rule by law Rousseau believes Republican board. "So - he says - I call the Republic of any State controlled by the laws, whatever was there way management. To maintain the provisions of the social contract and monitor the activities executive power, according to Rousseau, should be convened periodically public meetings, which should be put to the vote separately Two questions: First: if you please the sovereign to preserve the present form of government. Second: Do you want people to leave control in the hands of those to whom it is in currently charged.
The people, by Rousseau, is entitled not only to change the form of government, but in general terminate the agreement and the very public re-recover natural freedom.
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