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However, sovereign, according to Rousseau, is not bound their own laws. If would be the sovereign has prescribed himself a law from which he could not himself release it, according to Rousseau, would be contrary to the very nature of political organism: "There can be no fundamental law which is binding People in general, for it is not necessary even Social Contract ". Sovereign, "stands above and judges, and law. It is with this understanding of the role of Sovereign Russo connects the idea of his right to a pardon or release the offender from punishment provided by law and certain court.

The power of the sovereign, for Rousseau, it includes an unconditional right to life and death of subjects. "So - he writes - the citizen no longer have to judge danger which the law arbitrarily to subject, and when the emperor says him: "The State requires that you died, then he must die, because that only under this condition he lived till now in the safety and because it life is not only a blessing of nature, but was bestowed upon them on certain conditions of the State ".

Such formulations antiindividualisticheskoy not even have etatists Hobbes. In its idealized constructions of popular sovereignty, Rousseau rejects requirements of any safeguards to protect the rights of individuals in their relations with public authority. "So - he argues - as the Sovereign formed only from individuals, it does not and can not be of interest which would be contrary to the interests of these persons, hence the supreme power Sovereign does not require a guarantor to the subjects, because impossible that the body wanted to harm all of its members.

Appropriate safeguards, according to Rousseau, we need against the subjects to ensure that they fulfill their obligations to the sovereign. Hence, by Rousseau, and the need arises in the moment of forced relationship between state and citizen. "So - he said - to a public agreement does not become a mere formality, it tacitly includes such an obligation which alone can give force other obligations: if anyone refuses to obey the general will, it will be forced to the whole organism, and it means nothing like that, that his force compelled to be free. "

In general, public agreement, according to Rousseau, provides political body (the State) unlimited power over all its members. This power, directed by the general will, he refers to sovereignty. For the purposes Rousseau's conception, sovereignty is one, and we all can and should go on single-single sovereignty - the sovereignty of the people. In this context "the people" as the sole sovereign in Rousseau refers to all members of public agreement (ie, adult male part of the total population, the entire nation)rather than any particular social stratum of society (the lower strata of society, the poor,"Third class "," workers ", etc.),as it began to be understood later radical supporters of the concept of popular sovereignty (the Jacobins, Marxists, etc.).

Timmy Dunn For Congress
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Fayetteville, NC  28303
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