Scientists from different countries deal has been done to study the process of development in human beings political orientations and patterns of behavior,ie to study the process political socialization. The term "political socialization" was first introduced in 1959 by the American scientist G. Haymenom and subsequently received sustainable dissemination of the scientific lexicon. In 1968, about 800 members of the Association of American political scientists have chosen their specialty of "political socialization." American political scientist F.Grinstein argues that the use of this concept is possible in the following situations:
1) in the study of political orientations in children;
2) to study the rules and regulations prevailing in the society;
3) to study the influence of various political theories on the citizens in any stage of their life cycle;
4) in the course of observing the activities of institutions of socialization that are original channels impact on human society.
However revealed and certain differences of opinion and approaches researchers to analyze the basic mechanisms and stages of political socializing process, psychological aspects of the involvement of people in political life, etc. Much attention is given to the specifics process of political socialization in selected countries at different stages of their socio-political development. The results of these surveys can be up to somewhat useful in studying the problems and peculiarities of the political socialization in modern Russia.
The process of political socialization is carried out in two main ways. The first way is to transfer to new generations of the existing samples political consciousness and political behavior, ie in the transfer of political culture of the older generation to younger generations.This means that the process Socialization is partly a conservative hue, because in the minds of the young generation introduced the values, norms and behavior patterns that have utilized past experience. "The youngest crowds driven to learn, so that they were able to memorize the old rituals, and when they learn verbosity older, they announce older " - sarcastically remarked Max Stirner. As the main agents of political socialization in this case serve such social institutions as family, school, church, etc. Another way of political socialization is associated with the acquisition of new identity, previously unknown political knowledge, with the adoption of a new political experience. This is in the process of individual participation in political life countries, as well as under the influence of various factors. Both of these ways of political socializing in real life are closely intertwined and mutually reinforce each other, providing stability of the political system.
In a crisis, the transition state of society, with changing types political culture there are serious problems of preservation and transmission political experience, continuity of political institutions, norms and values. This is what is observed today in Russia. In the country at the same time changed political and economic system, there was an ideological vacuum, were subjected to deep corrosion of basic values. Russia there now within the new boundaries, the economic potential it has changed markedly since the collapse of the USSR. This is a heavy burden on the shoulders of millions of Russians. In the transformation of the political system in Russia, the role and importance of political socialization, which should be a new political culture of the population. In the USSR, we had a stable integrated consistent political culture of society, groups of citizens at the expense of effective socialization through family, school, universities, media, public organization and, finally, the Communist Party. However, let us not forget that effectiveness of political socialization in that time ensured cruelest control of the institutions of socialization.
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