The legislation provides for a monetary fund, which the candidate can be used to conduct the election campaign. This fund is created candidate from personal funds, deposit the appropriate party or movement sponsorship donations. It provides that a candidate can not spend more money than is required by law, although it requirement is violated even in the presidential elections. Thus, for the 1996 presidential elections law were included expenditures of $ 14.4 billion rubles, but the headquarters of Boris N. Yeltsin has been spent 74 trillion rubles ($ 14,8 billion), while, as in the U.S. presidential election in 1996 was spent 0,8 billion dollars.
The referendum as a mechanism of direct democracy The most common form of public participation in political issues - the referendum (from the Latin. referendum - «what should be reported"). Referendum - popular vote (poll) on any important issue public life.
Homeland referendum is generally considered Switzerland, although some researchers believe that there is every reason to believe referendums plebiscites Louis Napoleon 1851 and 1852.Because from a legal point of view the differences between referendum or plebiscite (from Latin. plebiscitum - «decision of the people") no; this complete synonyms. There are only stylistic differences; plebiscite called referendum on issues for the country or region-break.
In the XX century has expanded the scope of the referendum. It is used to adoption of the constitution and amendments thereto (the constitutional referendum), the approval bills (legislative referendum), changes in forms of government, obtaining the prior consent of the electorate in making important international and domestic solutions (consultative referendum), and in some countries (Switzerland, USA) - to address local issues. It should be noted that the referendum is not universal and compulsory Institute. The referendum does not apply in those Anglo-Saxon countries, where always dominated by the idea of supremacy of Parliament, although in most Britain in recent decades, he performed in isolated cases.
Very rarely used a referendum in Belgium. Do not use the referendum and in many Asian countries. The referendum never took place in the U.S. at the federal level in the Netherlands and other countries, but in Switzerland it is used very often (more than 400 times in federal level). For the referendum set certain conditions. Initiative referendum can only come from some higher authorities of the state, a certain number of MPs, the statutory number of citizens, etc. In France, an initiative referendum, as happened as a result interpretation of the constitution and practice, belongs to the president: he announces a referendum on his own initiative and formulate questions to be discussed at a referendum. In Italy, for a referendum is necessary to collect 500 thousand signatures Voters in Hungary, with such an initiative can be taken by 50 deputies Parliament, in Italy - a group of local self - 5 of 20 regional councils. This initiative, however, means that the referendum will necessarily be held.
Many countries have established a procedure for verifying compliance with all necessary procedures at the initiative of the referendum, including some verification by supreme or constitutional courts. If the necessary conditions are met, in some countries the final decision is made by Parliament, in others - President, all of this is due to the fact that the institution of the referendum seriously affect form of government in the country (parliamentary or presidential republic). Often, however, the parliament or the president must appoint a referendum, they choose and install only the specific date of the referendum. Local referendums are held usually on the initiative of local representative bodies or group of voters (for example, in Belarus - 10% of the voters territory).
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