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Enlightenment in Western Europe anticipates widely unfolded in the XVII century social progress of real knowledge necessary for the needs of material production, trade and navigation. Scientific activities G. Hobbes, Descartes, Leibniz, Newton, Spinoza and Dutch Cartesian marked a new stage in the liberation of science from the spiritual power religion, bourgeois growth of exact and natural sciences - physics, mathematics, mechanics, astronomy, the formation of materialism in modern times. Appeared in the XVII century in England (Locke), educational ideology gets wide dissemination in France of XVIII century (Montesquieu, Helvetius, Voltaire, Holbach, Rousseau).

Part of the Enlightenment was advanced bourgeois philosophy XVIII - beginning of the XIX century, it is theoretically reasonable necessity of the bourgeois- democratic social transformation. Enlightenment was "deistskaya shape of Materialism [1] , representatives of which started from a metaphysical ontology of finite world, the absolute dualism of cause and effect, matter and motion, evolution, and expediency.In epistemology, deists, usually separated by idealistic theory of innate ideas, rationalist conception of logic and coincidence real sequence, the idea of substantiality of the soul and some of agnosticism. Deists viewed God as a reasonable root causes of the world a "natural religion" as a social regulator historical process. Criticism of feudalism led to the denial of Deist theology explain the historical process and the approval of rationalist theory social contract (Rousseau, Jefferson, V. parrots).

As the revolution growing influence of products containing more radical critique of the feudal system. This is primarily a treatise Rousseau "The Social Contract" (1762). The most important ideas of the Enlightenment - the idea of knowledge, education and the idea of common sense. With the cult of common sense,reason is related to subordinate the desire of educators ideal start and the social order, public institutions, which,According to them,proper management of the "common good". Against the feudal absolutist state was directed theory of social contract,according to which the State is an institution which has arisen through contract between the people; this theory gave the right to deprive the people sovereign authority, violated the terms of the contract. Some of the educators had hoped for "enlightened monarch" hoping to continue to carry out the necessary reforms - so there was poveschennogo idea of absolutism.

Timmy Dunn For Congress
215 Dick Street
Fayetteville, NC  28303
(910) 484-5353

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