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Emphasizing

Emphasizing the indivisibility of the sovereignty, Rousseau opposed the doctrine of separation of powers. Narodopravstvo, he believed, eliminates the need division of state power as a guarantee of political freedom. For In order to avoid arbitrariness and lawlessness, enough, first, delimit the competence of the legislative and executive bodies (The legislator should not, for example, to make decisions regarding individual citizens, as in ancient Athens, as this competence of the Government) and secondly, to subordinate the executive authority to a sovereign. System separation Authorities Rousseau opposed the idea of separation of the functions of state.

If democracy is possible only one form of government - republic, then as a form of government organization may be different - the monarchy, aristocracy or democracy, depending on the number of persons involved in management. As noted by Rousseau, in a democracy, even the monarchy becomes a republic. "In the" social contract ", thus prerogatives of the monarch's duties are reduced to the prime minister. Sharing the opinion of most philosophers of the XVIII century., Rousseau believed that republican system is possible only in countries with small territories. The prototype of the people he served for a plebiscite in the Roman Republic, and communal self-government in the cantons of Switzerland.

Among the immediate predecessors of Rousseau in the field of socio-political ideas include Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), John Locke (1632-1704), SH.-L. Montesquieu (1689-1755). Briefly consider the essence of the teachings of each of the thinkers. Hugo Grotius, a leading Irish scholar and jurist, in 1625 published a its main work - "On the Law of War and Peace", which argued that primitive conditions prevailed on natural natural right rooted in the very nature of man, and that the rules it is immutable and eternal. Then, the main role in these relations, according to Grotius, was playing absolute supreme power, by having allegedly as a result of voluntary refusal of people from their natural primitive freedom. It followed that supreme power was a product not of natural law, but some historical fact.

While agreeing with some of the conclusions Grotius, Rousseau, however, exposed critical analysis of his theory of the origin of supreme power, emphasizing hostility to the people of this theory

Timmy Dunn For Congress
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