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Eligibility is generally available only to nationals of the state.Prerequisite to be elected is the possession active suffrage. Property qualification for ineligibility established in Canada, Argentina, Belgium, Costa Rica. The most common age limit, with the election * to upper chamber of parliament, this requirement is particularly high: in the U.S., Japan,India passive suffrage in elections to the lower house have the citizensage of 25 in the upper - 30 yearsFrance and Romania - respectively 23 and 35 years in Italy - 25 and 40 years in the Czech Republic and 40 -21 years. Article 81,n.2 RF Constitution says: "President of the Russian Federation may be elected RF citizen at least 35 years old, permanently residing in Russia not less than 10 years. " Article 97, Clause 1: "State Duma deputy can a citizen of Russia, over 21 years and eligible to participate in elections.

In accordance with the principles taktiruemogo in a broad sense suffrage can be given a classification of the election. So, elections are Presidential, parliamentary and local governments - regional (Provincial), municipal (city), the judges and some other officials. In addition, they are ordinary, extraordinary, additional.

Classification of elections on the principles of electoral law:

  • General - limited (propertied) Equal - Unequal;
  • Direct - indirect;
  • With a secret - with an open ballot.
By the time of the adoption of universal suffrage in the developed countries have developed three types of electoral systems, majoritarian, proportional, mixed. Any of them is a procedure for the formation of elected authorities and the system distribution of seats in elected bodies after determine the voting results. In the beginning the most common was a majority electoral system (Fr. majoritaire, majorite - the majority from Latin major - large) - the order determine the outcome of the vote, which elected to one or another elected body is considered a candidate (or slate), who receives statutory majority. Most varied.

In the majority system of absolute majority of the candidate is considered elected if he received throughout the district more than half of all votes (50% + 1 voice).Such a system exists in Australia. This provided the majority Russian legislation in the election of the president, the heads of administrations RF. Majority system of relative majority means that wins the election of those who gained more votes than any of his rivals. In This model is used in the U.S., Canada, UK, New Zealand, Russia in the election of deputies to representative bodies authority (State Duma, Legislative Assembly). In the majority system of qualified majority winner must obtain the preset majority greater than half the votes - two-thirds, three fourths, etc.

The advantages include a majoritarian system.

  1. The comparative ease of forming the government and its greater stability. This is achieved mainly through the distribution parliamentary seats among the major parties - the winners, discarding small parties.
  2. Formation of stable relations between the electorate deputies.

The main disadvantages of a majority system:

  1. Much of the electorate of the country (sometimes up to 50%) remains not represented in government;
  2. The party that wins the Election fewer votes may be represented in Parliament by a majority of parliamentary seats;
  3. Two parties which received the same number of votes, the authorities in an unequal number of candidates.
The proportional electoral system - the procedure for determining the results vote that the mandates are distributed proportionally among the well- votes cast. Distributed in Latin America, is used in parliamentary elections (Denmark, Portugal, Luxembourg, Latvia), or only Lower House (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Poland, Brazil), or half Lower House (Germany, Russia).

Timmy Dunn For Congress
215 Dick Street
Fayetteville, NC  28303
(910) 484-5353

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