In most countries that use proportional electoral system, the distribution mandates only those political parties, lists of whom received than 5% of the vote (the world practice). There are two types of proportional system: voters vote for Political parties across the country, the constituencies allocated, deputy mandates distributed on the basis of influence in the party constituencies.
The advantages of this system include the fact that in its mature by authorities before the real picture of political life society, the alignment of political forces.
The main disadvantages of the proportional electoral system:
- There are difficulties in forming a government, because of lack dominant party, the smaller the stability of the government.
- A very weak link between MPs and voters, not voting for specific candidates, but for the party.
- Independence of deputies from his party.
Many countries, seeking to use the advantages of both majority and proportional system and mitigate their weaknesses, mixed use system. As part of a mixed system of a certain part of the mandates shared by the majority principle, the other - on the proportional principle.This electoral system used in Russia at the elections in State Duma in 1993 and 1995. In recent decades, some organizations (UN, the Green Party, etc.) using a consensus system of elections. It has a positive direction, iefocused not on criticizing the opponent, but on finding the most acceptable to all the candidate or the election platform. Practically this reflected in the fact that the voter shall vote for one, but for all (Required more than two) candidates and ranks them in order of list own preferences.
The election campaign - is the act directly involved in elections, competing in the elections of the parties (parties, social organizations, the candidates). There are several types of election campaigns: a campaign for the elections federal, regional and local authorities, executive and legislature. Each species has its own election campaign characteristics and traditions that may vary depending on the regional and national factors. However, there are general rules organization and management of the electoral campaign, which give them institutional significance.
The main elements of the campaign:
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