The concept of social contract
Similarly, Rousseau came to the definition of public contract. Education of the State, as described in "Discourse on the origin and cause of inequality ..."Is a contract only from the outside (one proposed to establish a public authority - other agreed). Rousseau believes that in essence that the agreement was a ruse the rich to enslave the poor. Such an agreement is just and creates a situation when the society is a government and laws,but no law, legal relations between people. Rousseau's no accident that stressedthat title, as established by existing laws,is just only "clever usurpation." Ideas about the origin of the treaty power Rousseau's theory is not correlated with the past and the future, with the political ideal. Rousseau denounces private property, generating luxury and poverty, exposes "Excessive idleness in some, the excess of others." His criticism was aimed at not only against the feudal order, but also against growing industrial capitalism. Reflecting the mood of the peasants, who development of capitalism carried ruin, Rousseau contrasted industrial civilization (urban culture) the simplicity of manners and way of life free farmers.
The transition to a state of freedom implies for Rousseau, the conclusion of genuine social contract. This requires that each of the individuals refused previously owned his rights to protect their property and his personality. Instead, these alleged rights are based on force, it acquires civil rights and freedoms, including the right of ownership. His property and personality are now using under the protection of communities. Individual rights are thus becoming a legal nature, because they ensure mutual agreement and the total strength of all citizens.
As a result of the social contract formed association of equal and free individuals, or a republic. Rousseau rejects the doctrinedetermined the agreement as agreement between subjects and rulers. From his point of view,contract agreement is equal among themselves actors. Subject to the communityindividual does not subordinate itself to any one of, and therefore remains "the same free, as he was before. "Liberty and equality of the parties brings together people in an indissoluble whole (collective identity) whose interests may not contradict the interests of individuals.
Under the terms of the social contract sovereignty belongs to the people. The meaning of all preceding arguments Rousseau on the contract lies in the fact that justify the people's sovereignty as a fundamental principle republican system. This idea, together with the principles of equality and freedom constitutes the core of his political program. The sovereignty of the people is manifested in the exercise of legislative power. As we enter into polemics with the ideologists of the liberal bourgeoisie, Rousseau argued that the Political freedom is possible only in the state where the law people.Freedom, by definition, Rousseau, is that citizens under the protection of the laws themselves and be accepted. Therefore, he formulates and definition of the law. "Any law, if people did not approve it directly itself is invalid, this is not the law. "
Mechanism to identify the interests of the sovereign people of Rousseau opens with the concept of general will. In this regard, he drew a distinction between the general will (Volonte generate) and the will of all (volonte de tous). According to explanations thinker will of all is only a simple sum of private interests,whereas the general will is formed by subtracting from this amount of those interests, that destroy each other. In other words, the general will - a kind center (point) of intersection will of citizens.
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