Elections, in addition to achieving the main goal - the formation of government bodies -
perform a number of important political functions. These include:
Basic principles of free democratic elections
We can distinguish two groups of principles: first,
principles of electoral law defining the status, position
every citizen in the elections, and secondly, the general principles of organization
elections, characterizing the fundamental organizational, including
number and social conditions of their democracy.
The democratic principles of electoral law include:
- Understanding the interests of various social groups. During
election is an acute understanding of human vital
problems.Pre-election programs of candidates are trying to
concentrated form to express these concerns and those
contribute not only to the political education of voters, but also
formation of their active position.
- Competitiveness interests
various social groups. In
the electoral process, these interests otkritsallizovyvayutsya reveals their
- Intstitutsionalizatsiya relations
entrepreneurship. Candidate gathered the necessary number
signatures in its support, has already acquired its own resources to conduct
campaign, using the material and ideological
means provided by law.
- Forming activity
population. As a rule, political
voter turnout during elections is increasing, they are more
effectively master the problems of political life, often
revising or clarifying their political positions.
- Universality - all citizens, regardless of gender, race,
national, class or professional affiliation, language,
income, wealth, education, religions or political
beliefs are active (as voters) and passive (in
as a candidate) right to participate in elections. Generality
limited to only a very small number of qualifications. Age
ness and disability, moral ness.
Currently, the return requirement in most countries is 18 years old,
some countries it is higher - 21 (Malaysia, Morocco, Bolivia, Cameroon, Jamaica)
in some lower - 16 (Brazil and Iran), 17 (Indonesia). In the U.S., for example, in
1787 the right to vote was granted only to white male property owners,
property qualification disappeared only at the end of XIX century. Women received the right to vote
only in the 20 th year, under the influence of the October Revolution in Russia, and black - to
late 60-ies.Until 1970 in some states limit existed on literacy.
Universal suffrage was confirmed in a democratic world
immediately after the Second World War.